Runners Knee

This is caused by a band of tissue called the Ilio-tibial band or ITB. This is a thickening on the outside of the leg and is part of the quadriceps muscles. As you run this flicks over the outside of your femur (long bone in upper leg) causing friction and pain. The tension caused by the pull from the ITB also causes maltracking of the knee i.e. takes it out of it normal position causing patella (knee cap) pain.


  • Pain around outside of the knee
  • Tightness and tenderness along the outside of the leg from hip to knee
  • Pain made worse by running, especially downhill
  • Clicking in the knee

Article from ‘’

Patello-femoral Pain Syndrome

This is a generic term used to describe pain over the front of the knee cap. Muscular imbalances in the thigh cause the patella (knee cap) to move out of its normal position in a groove on the femur (thigh bone) and rub against structures such as cartilage, which can cause damage to them and pain to the patient.


  • Aching around the borders of the knee cap
  • Pain sitting for prolonged periods
  • Clicking of the knee when it is flexed (bent)
  • Tight muscles in the legs; quadriceps, hamstrings, calf.

Article from ‘FamilyDoctor’

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

The anterior cruciate ligament runs from the back of the femur (thigh bone) diagonally down to the front of the tibia (shin bone). Its role is to stop the tibia sliding forward away from the femur when a force is placed from below it. It is commonly caused by a twisting movement being placed through the knee whilst the foot is planted. It can also occur from a tackle.


  • Instability and swelling
  • Restricted range of movement especially in straightening the knee
  • Pain felt can be very high – especially straight after the injury

Article from ‘’

Medial Collateral Ligament Tear

Your medial collateral ligament (MCL) runs along the inside of your knee and joins your femur (thigh bone) to your tibia (shin bone). It is usually damaged when a force is placed on the outside of the knee going across the knee. This causes a gapping of the knee and, if the force is great enough, a partial or complete tear of the MCL. The grade of injury (as with all ligament damage) can vary from grade 1 to 3. Grade 1 is classed as 10% of fibres are torn and Grade 3 is a complete tear. Grade 2 falls inbetween meaning the symptoms can sometimes vary.


  • Tenderness over inside of the knee
  • Some swelling around the area
  • When gapping the knee there is joint laxity – gives the feeling of instability

Article from Orthopaedic Website

Growing Pains

These often come on from 7-12 years of age and affect 20-45% of children. It is often caused through muscle pain rather than growth of bones and is made worse after a particularly athletic day.


  • Pain in the afternoon and night but not every day
  • Pain in the thighs or calves but the joints appear normal
  • Growing pains are diagnosed by ruling other more serious conditions out. So if unsure please see your GP or visit us for a full medical case history

Article from KidsHealth


This is caused by ‘wear and tear’ of your joints. As this happens, your cartilage (smooth surface covering joints) begins to be removed leaving bone to rub on bone. When this happens the body lays down new boney growth called osteophytes. This process causes pain and inflammation at the joints surface, decreased range of movement at the joint and can have massive effects on the person’s life.


  • Pain (usually after movement with osteoarthritis)
  • Early morning stiffness
  • Lack of mobility
  • Swelling and inflammation at joint making it hot

Information from Arthritis Foundation