Ankles & Feet

Plantar Fasciitis

This is pain within the arch of the foot. The arch is formed by the plantar fascia and is a thick band of tissue from the heel to the toes. Its job is as a spring in the foot; so absorbs impact and recoils to aid in running. The plantar fascia collagen fibres break down causing the pain. A heel spur is present in approximately 70% of people with plantar fasciitis. This is a bone growth which can press on the plantar fascia.


  • Pain under the heel and along the inside arch of the foot
  • Pain on heel strike whilst running (especially downhill)
  • Pain worst first thing in morning then loosens up after few steps

Article from ‘’

Achilles Tendinopathy

Achilles Tendinopathy

Called a tendinopathy rather than tendonitis because research has shown that there isn’t much inflammation but is a breakdown of the normal tissue structure. It can be caused by a rapid increase in training (acute) or prolonged exercise over a period of time (chronic). With either cause, without treatment, recover can take a while due to the tendons poor blood supply. Other causes include; change to footwear, immobility at the ankle joint and overpronation (rolling in at the ankle).


  • Pain over the Achilles; either on the heel or up to 4cm above
  • Pain worse with exercise and eases with rest
  • Tender to touch
  • Occasionally nodules/bumps appear on the tendon

Bupa Articles on Achilles Tendinopathy

Ankle Sprain

This is the most common cause for ankle pain and happens when the ankle twists spraining ligaments either on the inside (eversion sprain) or outside (inversion sprain) of the ankle. Rolling over the ankle into an inversion sprain is the most common. There are 3 key ligaments on the outside of the ankle and often the anterior talofibula ligament (which joins the leg to the ankle at the front) will be damaged as your weight rolls over the ankle.


  • Pain and tenderness over the outside (inversion) or inside (eversion) of the ankle
  • Pain whilst weight bearing and walking, often causing a limp
  • Swelling and characteristic bruises around the malleolus (boney parts of ankle)

Article on Ankle Sprains from Physio Room


This is caused by ‘wear and tear’ of your joints. As this happens, your cartilage (smooth surface covering joints) begins to be removed leaving bone to rub on bone. When this happens the body lays down new boney growth called osteophytes. This process causes pain and inflammation at the joints surface, decreased range of movement at the joint and can have massive effects on the person’s life.


  • Pain (usually after movement with osteoarthritis)
  • Early morning stiffness
  • Lack of mobility
  • Swelling and inflammation at joint making it hot

Information from Arthritis Foundation